Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Revenue Recognition

Revenue Recognition
6 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2023
Revenue from Contract with Customer [Abstract]  
We recognize revenue as, or when, we satisfy performance obligations under a contract. The majority of our contracts have performance obligations that are satisfied over time. In most cases, we view our performance obligations as promises to transfer a series of distinct services to our customers that are substantially the same and which have the same pattern of service. We recognize revenue over the performance period as a customer receives the benefits of our services.
Disaggregation of Revenue
In addition to our segment reporting, we disaggregate our revenues by contract type and customer type. Our operating segments represent the manner in which our Chief Executive Officer reviews our financial results, which is further discussed in "Note 3. Business Segments."
Table 4.1: Revenue by Contract Type
For the Three Months Ended For the Six Months Ended
March 31, 2023 March 31, 2022 March 31, 2023 March 31, 2022
(dollars in thousands)
Performance-based $ 574,747  47.6  % $ 516,210  43.9  % $ 1,143,964  46.6  % $ 1,007,166  43.3  %
Cost-plus 312,176  25.9  % 322,823  27.4  % 659,495  26.9  % 662,904  28.5  %
Fixed price 180,674  15.0  % 158,867  13.5  % 355,747  14.5  % 310,372  13.3  %
Time and materials 139,255  11.5  % 179,426  15.2  % 296,892  12.1  % 347,760  14.9  %
Total revenue $ 1,206,852  $ 1,177,326  $ 2,456,098  $ 2,328,202 
Table 4.2: Revenue by Customer Type
For the Three Months Ended For the Six Months Ended
March 31, 2023 March 31, 2022 March 31, 2023 March 31, 2022
(dollars in thousands)
U.S. federal government agencies $ 569,897  47.2  % $ 553,707  47.0  % $ 1,173,815  47.8  % $ 1,117,801  48.0  %
U.S. state government agencies 446,549  37.0  % 411,287  34.9  % 883,911  36.0  % 782,834  33.7  %
International government agencies 161,359  13.4  % 194,800  16.5  % 343,119  14.0  % 366,175  15.7  %
Other, including local municipalities and commercial customers 29,047  2.4  % 17,532  1.5  % 55,253  2.2  % 61,392  2.6  %
Total revenue $ 1,206,852  $ 1,177,326  $ 2,456,098  $ 2,328,202 
Contract balances
Differences in timing between revenue recognition and cash collection result in contract assets and contract liabilities. We classify these assets as accounts receivable — billed and billable and unbilled receivables; the liabilities are classified as deferred revenue.
In many contracts, we bill our customers on a monthly basis shortly after the month end for work performed in that month and such balances are considered collectible and are included within accounts receivable, net.
Exceptions to this pattern will arise for various reasons, including those listed below.
Under cost-plus contracts, we are typically required to estimate a contract's share of our general and administrative expenses. This share is based upon estimates of total costs, which may vary over time. We typically invoice our customers at an agreed provisional billing rate which may differ from actual rates incurred. If our actual rates are higher than the provisional billing rates, an asset is recorded for this variance; if the provisional billing rates are higher than our actual rates, we record a liability.
Certain contracts include retainage balances, whereby revenue is earned, but some portion of cash payments are held back by the customer for a period of time, typically to allow the customer to confirm the objective criteria laid out by the contract have been met. This balance is classified as accounts receivable - unbilled until restrictions on billing are lifted. As of March 31, 2023 and September 30, 2022, $11.7 million and $13.1 million, respectively, of our unbilled receivables related to amounts pursuant to contractual retainage provisions.
In certain contracts, we may receive funds from our customers prior to performing operations. These funds are typically referred to as "set-up costs" and reflect the need for us to make investments in infrastructure prior to providing a service. This investment in infrastructure is not a performance obligation that is distinct from the service that is subsequently provided and, as a result, revenue is not recognized based upon the establishment of this infrastructure, but rather over the course of the contractual relationship. The funds are initially recorded as deferred revenue and recognized over the term of the contract. Other contracts may not include set-up fees but will provide higher fees in earlier periods of the contract. The premium on these fees is deferred.
Some of our contracts, notably our employment services contracts in the Outside the U.S. Segment, include payments for desired outcomes, such as job placement and job retention, and these outcome payments occur over several months. We are required to estimate these outcome fees ahead of their realization and recognize this estimated fee over the period of delivery.
During the three and six months ended March 31, 2023, we recognized revenue of $34.8 million and $85.9 million, respectively, included in our deferred revenue balances at September 30, 2022. During the three and six months ended March 31, 2022, we recognized revenue of $20.6 million and $61.8 million, respectively, included in our deferred revenue balances at September 30, 2021.
Contract estimates
We are required to use estimates in recognizing revenue from some of our contracts.
Some of our performance-based contract revenue is recognized based upon future milestones defined in each contract. This is the case in many of our employment services contracts in the Outside the U.S. Segment, where we are paid as individuals attain employment milestones, which may take many months to achieve. We recognize revenue over the period of performance. Our estimates vary from contract to contract but may include the number of participants within a portfolio reaching employment milestones and the service delivery periods for participants reaching the employment milestone. We estimate the total variable fees we will receive using the expected value method. We recognize the fees over the expected period of performance. At each reporting period, we update our estimates of the variable fees to represent the circumstances present at the end of the reporting period. We are required to constrain our estimates to the extent that it is probable that there will not be a significant reversal of cumulative revenue when the uncertainty is resolved. We do not have a history of significant constraints on these contracts.
Changes to our estimates are recognized on a cumulative catch-up basis. For the three and six months ended March 31, 2023, we reported a reduction in revenue and diluted earnings per share of $6.5 million and $0.08 and $6.1 million and $0.07, respectively from changes in estimates. The corresponding change for the three and six months ended March 31, 2022 was a reduction to revenue and diluted earnings per share of $1.4 million and $0.02 and $4.2 million and $0.05, respectively.
Remaining performance obligations
As of March 31, 2023, we had approximately $400 million of remaining performance obligations. We anticipate that we will recognize revenue on approximately 60% of this balance within the next 12 months. This balance excludes contracts with an original duration of twelve months or less, including contracts with a penalty-free termination for convenience clause, and any variable consideration which is allocated entirely to future performance obligations, including variable transaction fees or fees tied directly to costs incurred.