Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Organization and Basis of Presentation (Policies)

Organization and Basis of Presentation (Policies)
3 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2020
Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation The accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States for interim financial information and the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X. As permitted by these instructions, they do not include all of the information and notes required by generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) for complete financial statements. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring adjustments) considered necessary for a fair presentation are included. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. The results of operations for the three months ended December 31, 2020, are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the full fiscal year. The balance sheet at September 30, 2020, has been derived from the audited financial statements at that date, but does not include all of the information and notes required by GAAP for complete financial statements.
The preparation of these financial statements, in conformity with GAAP in the United States, requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent liabilities and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses. At each reporting period end, we make estimates including those related to revenue recognition and cost estimation on certain contracts, the realizability of goodwill and amounts related to income taxes, certain accrued liabilities, and contingencies and litigation.
We base our estimates on historical experience and expectations of the future that we believe to be reasonable. The economic and political effects of the Coronavirus (COVID) global pandemic increase uncertainty, which has reduced our ability to use past results to estimate future performance. Accordingly, our estimates may be subject to greater volatility than has been the case in the past.
Our balance sheet includes goodwill valued at $595.9 million. This balance is allocated between reporting units, which are consistent with our three operating segments. Goodwill is not amortized but is tested for impairment when necessary and no less than once per year. We performed our last annual goodwill impairment test as of July 1, 2020, using a qualitative assessment. There has been no indication of impairment of any reporting unit at this time or since.
Our balance sheet includes a number of long-lived assets, including property and equipment, capitalized software, operating lease right-of-use assets, deferred contract costs and intangible assets. These assets are depreciated or amortized over their estimated useful economic lives but are subject to impairment if events indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. At this time, there are no balances which we believe are not recoverable.
Our balance sheet includes $782.8 million of billed, billable and unbilled accounts receivable, net of allowance for credit losses. Beginning October 1, 2020, we have evaluated credit risk under ASC Topic 326; as further described below. Credit risk has not historically been significant to our business due to the nature of our customers. During the three months ended December 31, 2020, we recorded changes to our estimated credit losses of $0.6 million.
As disclosed in "Note 3. Revenue Recognition," revenue for some of our employment services contracts in the Outside the U.S. Segment is based upon achievement of future outcomes as defined in each contract. Specifically, we are paid as individuals attain employment goals, which may take many months to achieve. Revenue is recognized on these contracts over the period of performance. Employment markets worldwide suffered a significant shock during fiscal year 2020 and remain disrupted.
Many of our contracts in the United States are cost-plus contracts, where we are reimbursed for costs that are allowable, allocable and reasonable. Due to the global pandemic, we are incurring incremental and
unusual costs, including additional sick pay and idle labor for employees who are unable to perform services due to their health issues, child care issues, or physical restrictions imposed on their workplace. Although the U.S. Federal Government, which provides the majority of our cost-plus contracts, has provided regular guidance, there is some uncertainty within other contracts as to recoverable costs.
Changes in financial reporting
Changes in financial reporting
In August 2018, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued ASU No. 2018-15, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other - Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40) - Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract. This accounting guidance requires customers in cloud-computing arrangements to identify and defer certain implementation costs in a manner broadly consistent with that of existing guidance on the costs to develop or obtain internal-use software. Costs capitalized under this guidance will be expensed over the term of the cloud computing arrangement. We adopted this guidance on October 1, 2020, using a prospective approach.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. This update introduces a new model for recognizing credit losses on financial instruments, including losses on accounts receivable. This update replaces the existing incurred loss impairment model with an expected loss model. We adopted this guidance on October 1, 2020, with no material impact to our financial statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment. This standard will not change the manner in which we would identify a goodwill impairment but would change any subsequent calculation of an impairment charge. We adopted this standard on October 1, 2020. The effect of this new standard will depend upon the outcome of future goodwill impairment tests.
We are subject to agreements that reference the London Interbank Offering Rate (LIBOR). Between now and December 2022, we anticipate that agreements with LIBOR will be updated to reflect the transition from this rate to alternative reference rates. In March 2020, FASB issued ASU 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting. This standard is intended to provide temporary optional expedients and exceptions on contract modifications and hedge accounting to ease the financial reporting burdens related to this expected market transition. This standard is effective for all entities upon issuance through December 31, 2022. We are assessing the impact of the market transition and this standard.