Washington, D.C. 20549

(Mark One)
Quarterly Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2021
Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the transition period from         to
Commission File Number: 1-12997

Maximus, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Virginia 54-1000588
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
1891 Metro Center Drive, Reston, Virginia
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(703) 251-8500
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, no par valueMMSNew York Stock Exchange

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer 
Accelerated filer 
Non-accelerated filer 
Smaller reporting company 
Emerging growth company 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes  No 
As of August 2, 2021, there were 61,471,783 shares of the registrant’s common stock (no par value) outstanding.

Maximus, Inc.
Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q
For the Quarter Ended June 30, 2021
Item 1.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 6.

Throughout this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, the terms “Company,” “we,” “us,” “our” and “Maximus” refer to Maximus, Inc. and its subsidiaries, unless the context requires otherwise.
Included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q are forward-looking statements within the meaning of the safe harbor provisions of the United States Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements can be identified by words such as: “anticipate,” “intend,” “plan,” “goal,” “seek,” “opportunity,” “could,” “potential,” “believe,” “project,” “estimate,” “expect,” “strategy,” “future,” “likely,” “may,” “should,” “will,” and similar references to future periods.
Forward-looking statements that are not historical facts, including statements about our confidence, strategies and initiatives, and our expectations about revenues, results of operations, profitability, liquidity, market demand, the impact of the coronavirus (COVID-19) global pandemic and our recent acquisitions are forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. These risks could cause our actual results to differ materially from those indicated by such forward-looking statements. Therefore, you should not rely on any of these forward-looking statements. Important factors that could cause our actual results and financial condition to differ materially from those indicated in the forward-looking statements include, among others, the following:
the extent and impact of the continuation of the global pandemic and the actions taken or to be taken by us, our customers, and the governments or jurisdictions in which we operate in response to COVID-19;
the impact of the Biden Administration on federal procurement, federal funding to states' safety-net programs, and the overall decision-making process related to our industry, including our business and customers;
the demand for our services and products, including the impacts of any economic downturns;
a failure to meet performance requirements in our contracts, which might lead to contract termination and actual or liquidated damages;
the effects of future legislative or government budgetary and spending changes;
our failure to successfully bid for and accurately price contracts to generate our desired profit;
our ability to maintain technology systems and otherwise protect confidential or protected information;
our ability to attract and retain executive officers, senior managers and other qualified personnel to execute our business;
our ability to manage capital investments and startup costs incurred before receiving related contract payments;
our ability to manage our growth, including acquired businesses;
our ability to manage our debt;
the ability of government customers to terminate contracts on short notice, with or without cause;
our ability to maintain relationships with key government entities from whom a substantial portion of our revenue is derived;
the outcome of reviews or audits, which might result in financial penalties and impair our ability to respond to invitations for new work;
a failure to comply with laws governing our business, which might result in the Company being subject to fines, penalties, suspension, debarment, and other sanctions;
the costs and outcome of litigation;
difficulties in integrating or achieving projected revenues, earnings, and other benefits associated with acquired businesses;
the effects of changes in laws and regulations governing our business, including tax laws, and applicable interpretations and guidance thereunder, or changes in accounting policies, rules, methodologies, and practices, and our ability to estimate the impact of such changes;
matters related to business we disposed of or divested; and
other factors set forth in Item 1A of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and in Item 1A, "Risk Factors" in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended September 30, 2020, which was filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 19, 2020.
Any forward-looking statement made by us in this report is based only on information currently available to us and speaks only as of the date on which it is made. We undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statement, whether written or oral, that may be made from time to time, whether as a result of new information, future developments, or otherwise.

Item 1. Consolidated Financial Statements.
Maximus, Inc.
(Amounts in thousands, except per share data)
 Three Months Ended June 30,Nine Months Ended June 30,
Revenue$1,243,520 $901,337 $3,148,354 $2,537,701 
Cost of revenue951,664 715,734 2,419,785 2,023,550 
Gross profit291,856 185,603 728,569 514,151 
Selling, general, and administrative expenses140,129 89,582 364,498 283,662 
Amortization of intangible assets12,132 8,712 23,718 26,734 
Operating income139,595 87,309 340,353 203,755 
Interest expense3,087 616 4,049 1,565 
Other (expense)/income, net(8,289)(671)(9,584)621 
Income before income taxes128,219 86,022 326,720 202,811 
Provision for income taxes33,724 21,558 87,534 51,963 
Net income$94,495 $64,464 $239,186 $150,848 
Basic earnings per share$1.52 $1.04 $3.86 $2.38 
Diluted earnings per share$1.51 $1.04 $3.84 $2.37 
Dividends declared per share$0.28 $0.28 $0.84 $0.84 
Weighted average shares outstanding:  
Basic62,064 61,882 62,028 63,463 
Diluted62,453 62,102 62,300 63,666 

See notes to unaudited consolidated financial statements.

Maximus, Inc.
(Amounts in thousands)
 Three Months Ended June 30,Nine Months Ended June 30,
Net income$94,495 $64,464 $239,186 $150,848 
Net unrealized losses on cash flow hedge, net of taxes of $379, $, $379 and $, respectively
(1,062) (1,062) 
Foreign currency translation adjustments(24)3,432 7,669 (1,304)
Comprehensive income$93,409 $67,896 $245,793 $149,544 

See notes to unaudited consolidated financial statements.

Maximus, Inc.
(Amounts in thousands)
 June 30,
September 30,
Current assets:  
Cash and cash equivalents$96,110 $71,737 
Accounts receivable — billed and billable, net of allowance of $6,607 and $6,051
794,653 622,871 
Accounts receivable — unbilled334,666 163,332 
Income taxes receivable454 2,075 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets81,479 72,543 
Total current assets1,307,362 932,558 
Property and equipment, net67,794 66,721 
Capitalized software, net45,739 38,033 
Operating lease right-of-use assets186,944 177,159 
Goodwill1,757,795 593,129 
Intangible assets, net892,487 145,893 
Deferred contract costs, net37,020 20,891 
Deferred compensation plan assets47,041 36,819 
Deferred income taxes506 1,915 
Other assets27,905 11,584 
Total assets$4,370,593 $2,024,702 
Current liabilities:  
Accounts payable and accrued liabilities$420,510 $253,338 
Accrued compensation and benefits181,559 137,101 
Deferred revenue68,846 51,655 
Income taxes payable19,763 5,377 
Current portion of long-term debt and other borrowings60,586 10,878 
Operating lease liabilities82,572 80,748 
Other current liabilities26,768 22,071 
Total current liabilities860,604 561,168 
Deferred revenue, less current portion36,051 27,311 
Deferred income taxes204,174 24,737 
Long-term debt, less current portion1,633,135 18,017 
Deferred compensation plan liabilities, less current portion44,076 38,654 
Operating lease liabilities, less current portion118,341 104,011 
Other liabilities20,765 8,985 
Total liabilities2,917,146 782,883 
Shareholders’ equity:  
Common stock, no par value; 100,000 shares authorized; 61,472 and 61,504 shares issued and outstanding at June 30, 2021, and September 30, 2020, respectively
535,990 513,959 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(36,031)(42,638)
Retained earnings953,488 770,498 
Total shareholders' equity1,453,447 1,241,819 
Total liabilities and shareholders' equity$4,370,593 $2,024,702 

See notes to unaudited consolidated financial statements.

Maximus, Inc.
(Amounts in thousands)
 Nine Months Ended June 30,
Cash flows from operations:  
Net income$239,186 $150,848 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to cash flows from operations:  
Depreciation and amortization of property and equipment and
capitalized software
33,664 47,496 
Amortization of intangible assets23,718 26,734 
Deferred income taxes3,632 (5,210)
Stock compensation expense20,823 17,558 
Gain on sale of a business (1,706)
Costs related to debt financing8,509  
Change in assets and liabilities, net of effects of business combinations  
Accounts receivable — billed and billable(83,881)(147,626)
Accounts receivable — unbilled(170,423)(80,267)
Prepaid expenses and other current assets7,542 529 
Deferred contract costs(15,773)(1,396)
Accounts payable and accrued liabilities116,873 48,622 
Accrued compensation and benefits34,387 33,647 
Deferred revenue23,624 2,806 
Income taxes15,165 563 
Operating lease right-of-use assets and liabilities1,077 (1,071)
Other assets and liabilities(11,464)4,556 
Cash flows from operations246,659 96,083 
Cash flows from investing activities:  
Purchases of property and equipment and capitalized software costs(32,133)(28,436)
Acquisitions of businesses, net of cash acquired(1,779,473)(2,611)
Proceeds from the sale of a business 3,250 
Other 385 
Cash used in investing activities(1,811,606)(27,412)
Cash flows from financing activities:  
Cash dividends paid to Maximus shareholders(51,625)(52,988)
Purchases of Maximus common stock(3,363)(166,959)
Tax withholding related to RSU vesting(9,818)(10,614)
Payments for debt financing(22,759) 
Borrowings under new credit facilities1,700,000  
Other debt borrowings585,000 421,488 
Other debt repayments(607,880)(278,971)
Cash provided by/(used in) financing activities1,586,792 (89,001)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash2,830 (174)
Net increase in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash24,675 (20,504)
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash, beginning of period88,561 116,492 
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash, end of period$113,236 $95,988 
See notes to unaudited consolidated financial statements.

Maximus, Inc.
(Amounts in thousands)
Balance at March 31, 202161,472 $528,205 $(34,945)$876,645 $1,369,905 
Net income— — — 94,495 94,495 
Foreign currency translation— — (24)— (24)
Cash flow hedge, net of income taxes— — (1,062)— (1,062)
Cash dividends— — — (17,211)(17,211)
Dividends on RSUs— 441 — (441)— 
Stock compensation expense— 7,344 — — 7,344 
Balance at June 30, 202161,472 $535,990 $(36,031)$953,488 $1,453,447 

Balance at September 30, 202061,504 $513,959 $(42,638)$770,498 $1,241,819 
Net income— — — 239,186 239,186 
Foreign currency translation— — 7,669 — 7,669 
Cash flow hedge, net of income taxes— — (1,062)— (1,062)
Cash dividends— — — (51,625)(51,625)
Dividends on RSUs— 1,208 — (1,208)— 
Purchases of Maximus common stock(52)— — (3,363)(3,363)
Stock compensation expense— 20,823 — — 20,823 
RSUs vested20 — — — — 
Balance at June 30, 202161,472 $535,990 $(36,031)$953,488 $1,453,447 

See notes to unaudited consolidated financial statements.

Maximus, Inc.
(Amounts in thousands)
Balance at March 31, 202061,313 $511,023 $(50,116)$677,561 $ $1,138,468 
Net income— — — 64,464 — 64,464 
Foreign currency translation— — 3,432 — — 3,432 
Cash dividends— — — (17,175)— (17,175)
Dividends on RSUs— 419 — (419)—  
Stock compensation expense— 5,758 — — — 5,758 
Balance at June 30, 202061,313 $517,200 $(46,684)$724,431 $ $1,194,947 

Balance at September 30, 201963,979 $498,433 $(45,380)$794,739 $409 $1,248,201 
Net income— — — 150,848 — 150,848 
Foreign currency translation— — (1,304)— — (1,304)
Cash dividends— — — (52,988)(409)(53,397)
Dividends on RSUs— 1,209 — (1,209)— — 
Purchases of Maximus common stock(2,767)— — (166,959)— (166,959)
Stock compensation expense— 17,558 — — — 17,558 
RSUs vested101 — — — — — 
Balance at June 30, 202061,313 $517,200 $(46,684)$724,431 $ $1,194,947 

See notes to unaudited consolidated financial statements.

Maximus, Inc.
Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements
For the Three and Nine Months Ended June 30, 2021 and 2020

1. Organization and Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States for interim financial information and the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X. As permitted by these instructions, they do not include all of the information and notes required by generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) for complete financial statements. In the opinion of management, all adjustments, including normal recurring adjustments, considered necessary for a fair presentation are included. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. The results of operations for the three and nine months ended June 30, 2021, are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the full fiscal year. The balance sheet at September 30, 2020, has been derived from the audited financial statements at that date but does not include all of the information and notes required by GAAP for complete financial statements.
These financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated audited financial statements and the notes thereto at September 30, 2020 and 2019, and for each of the three years in the period ended September 30, 2020, included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K which was filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 19, 2020.
The preparation of these financial statements, in conformity with GAAP in the United States, requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent liabilities and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses. At each reporting period end, we make estimates, including those related to revenue recognition and cost estimation on certain contracts, the realizability of goodwill and amounts related to income taxes, certain accrued liabilities, and contingencies and litigation.
We base our estimates on historical experience and expectations of the future that we believe to be reasonable. The economic and political effects of the coronavirus (COVID-19) global pandemic increase uncertainty, which has reduced our ability to use past results to estimate future performance. Accordingly, our estimates may be subject to greater volatility than has been the case in the past.
Our balance sheet includes goodwill valued at $1.76 billion. This balance is allocated between reporting units, which are consistent with our three operating segments. Goodwill is not amortized but is tested for impairment when necessary and no less than once per year. We performed our last annual goodwill impairment test as of July 1, 2020, using a qualitative assessment. There has been no indication of impairment of any reporting unit at this time or since.
Our balance sheet includes a number of long-lived assets, including property and equipment, capitalized software, operating lease right-of-use assets, deferred contract costs and intangible assets. These assets are depreciated or amortized over their estimated useful economic lives but are subject to impairment if events indicate that the carrying amounts may not be recoverable. At this time, there are no balances which we believe are not recoverable.
Included within our long-lived assets are $892.5 million of intangible assets, which have been acquired through business combinations. We use judgment in identifying, valuing, and assigning a useful economic life to assets as they are acquired. The judgments required vary with the type of asset but may include projections of future results, estimated costs to recreate or replace assets, the cost of utilizing other, similar assets provided by a third party and an appropriate cost of capital. Where appropriate, we utilize the services of a third-party specialist to assist us in these valuations.
Our balance sheet includes $1.13 billion of billed, billable and unbilled accounts receivable, net of allowance for credit losses. Beginning October 1, 2020, we have evaluated credit risk under ASC Topic 326, as further described below. Credit risk has not historically been significant to our business due to the nature of our customers. During the three and nine months ended June 30, 2021, we recorded changes to our estimated credit losses of $0.1 million and $1.0 million, respectively.
As disclosed in "Note 3. Revenue Recognition," revenue for some of our employment services contracts in the Outside the U.S. Segment is based upon achievement of future outcomes as defined in each contract. Specifically, we are paid as individuals attain employment goals, which may take many months to achieve. Revenue is recognized on these contracts over the period of performance. Employment markets worldwide

suffered a significant shock during fiscal year 2020 due to COVID-19, which resulted in significant reductions in work performed and outcomes reached. Although we are seeing recovery in fiscal year 2021, this revenue remains subject to volatility.
As disclosed in "Note 5. Business Combinations," we have acquired two businesses during fiscal year 2021. For assets acquired and liabilities assumed, we are required to identify and recognize these balances at their fair value as of the date of acquisition. We are still in the process of completing the valuations of these assets and, accordingly, there may be changes in these balances.
Changes in financial reporting
In August 2018, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued ASU No. 2018-15, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other - Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40) - Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract. This accounting guidance requires customers in cloud-computing arrangements to identify and defer certain implementation costs in a manner broadly consistent with that of existing guidance on the costs to develop or obtain internal-use software. Costs capitalized under this guidance will be expensed over the term of the cloud computing arrangement. We adopted this guidance on October 1, 2020, using a prospective approach.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. This update introduces a new model for recognizing credit losses on financial instruments, including losses on accounts receivable. This update replaced the existing incurred loss impairment model with an expected loss model. We adopted this guidance on October 1, 2020, with no material impact to our financial statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment. This standard will not change the manner in which we would identify a goodwill impairment but would change any subsequent calculation of an impairment charge. We adopted this standard on October 1, 2020. The effect of this new standard will depend upon the outcome of future goodwill impairment tests.

2. Segment Information
We conduct our operations through three business segments: U.S. Services, U.S. Federal Services, and Outside the U.S.
Our U.S. Services Segment provides a variety of business process services (BPS) such as program administration, appeals and assessments, and related consulting work for U.S. state and local government programs. These services support a variety of programs, including the Affordable Care Act (ACA), Medicaid, the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP), Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), and child support programs. Addressing societal macro trends such as aging populations and rising costs, the segment continues to execute on its clinical evolution strategy by expanding its clinical offerings in public health with new work in contact tracing, disease investigation, and vaccine distribution support services as part of the governments' COVID-19 response efforts. The segment also successfully expanded into the unemployment insurance market, supporting more than 15 states in their unemployment insurance programs.

From technology solutions to program administration and operations, our U.S. Federal Services Segment delivers end-to-end solutions that help various U.S. federal agencies better deliver on their mission. This also includes appeals and assessments services, system and application development, IT modernization, and maintenance services. The segment also contains certain state-based assessments and appeals work that is part of the segment's heritage within the Medicare Appeals portfolio which continues to be managed within this segment. Propelled by the Maximus Attain platform, the segment executes on its digital strategy to deliver technology solutions that advance agency missions, including the charge to modernize, provide better customer experience, and drive process efficiencies. The segment continues to expand its clinical solutions and manages the clinical evaluation process for U.S. veterans and service members on behalf of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. The segment further supports clinical offerings in public health with new work supporting the U.S. Federal Government's COVID-19 response efforts. This included expanded work with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for their helpline and increased support for the IRS Wage and Investment Division's response efforts to general inquiries regarding the Coronavirus Aid Relief & Economic Security (CARES) Act and Economic Impact Payment Service Plan.

Delivering support to people from different backgrounds, cultures and communities, our Outside the U.S. Segment provides BPS for international governments and commercial clients. Helping people find

employment, access vital support, and remain healthy, these services include health and disability assessments, program administration for employment services, wellbeing solutions and other job seeker-related services. We support programs and deliver services in the United Kingdom (U.K.), including the Health Assessment Advisory Service (HAAS), the Work & Health Programme, Fair Start, and Restart; Australia, including jobactive and the Disability Employment Service; Canada, including Health Insurance British Columbia and the Employment Program of British Columbia; in addition to Italy, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Korea, and Sweden, where we predominantly provide employment support and job seeker services.

Expenses that are not specifically included in the segments are included in other categories, including amortization of intangible assets and the direct costs of acquisitions. These costs are excluded from measuring each segment's operating performance.
 Three Months Ended June 30,Nine Months Ended June 30,
(in thousands)2021% (1)2020% (1)2021% (1)2020% (1)
U.S. Services$436,338 $336,950 $1,269,487 $957,929 
U.S. Federal Services617,601 450,143 1,352,982 1,210,105 
Outside the U.S.189,581 114,244 525,885 369,667 
Total$1,243,520 $901,337 $3,148,354 $2,537,701 
Gross profit:    
U.S. Services$104,814 24.0%$93,029 27.6%$323,256 25.5%$268,073 28.0%
U.S. Federal Services155,776 25.2%84,723 18.8%312,405 23.1%232,502 19.2%
Outside the U.S.31,266 16.5%7,851 6.9%92,908 17.7%13,576 3.7%
Total$291,856 23.5%$185,603 20.6%$728,569 23.1%$514,151 20.3%
Selling, general & administrative expense:    
U.S. Services$42,606 9.8%$31,996 9.5%$116,655 9.2%$102,633 10.7%
U.S. Federal Services69,647 11.3%45,490 10.1%172,877 12.8%131,455 10.9%
Outside the U.S.22,973 12.1%13,668 12.0%65,018 12.4%47,125 12.7%
Gain on sale of business (3) NM(1,706)NM NM(1,706)NM
Other (2)4,903 NM134 NM9,948 NM4,155 NM
Total$140,129 11.3%$89,582 9.9%$364,498 11.6%$283,662 11.2%
Operating income:    
U.S. Services$62,208 14.3%$61,033 18.1%$206,601 16.3%$165,440 17.3%
U.S. Federal Services86,129 13.9%39,233 8.7%139,528 10.3%101,047 8.4%
Outside the U.S.8,293 4.4%(5,817)(5.1)%27,890 5.3%(33,549)(9.1)%
Amortization of intangible assets(12,132)NM(8,712)NM(23,718)NM(26,734)NM
Gain on sale of business (3) NM1,706 NM$ NM1,706 NM
Other (2)(4,903)NM(134)NM(9,948)NM(4,155)NM
Total$139,595 11.2%$87,309 9.7%$340,353 10.8%$203,755 8.0%

(1) Percentage of respective segment revenue. Percentages not considered meaningful are marked “NM.”
(2) Other selling, general, and administrative expenses includes credits and costs that are not allocated to a particular segment. This includes expenses incurred as part of our acquisitions, as well as potential acquisitions which have not been or may not be completed. Our results for the three and nine months ended June 30, 2021, included $5.6 million and $8.8 million, respectively, of expenses relating to the acquisitions of Attain, LLC, and VES Group, Inc. For more information, see "Note 5. Business Combinations."

(3) During fiscal year 2020, we sold Q2 Administrators LLC, a subsidiary within our U.S. Federal Services Segment, resulting in a gain.

Identifiable assets for the segments are shown below. Identifiable assets for U.S. Federal Services increased due to the acquisitions of Attain, LLC and VES Group, Inc. Refer to "Note 5. Business Combinations" for details.
(in thousands)June 30, 2021September 30, 2020
U.S. Services$728,347 $702,728 
U.S. Federal Services3,149,694 937,477 
Outside the U.S.304,952 224,532 
Corporate187,600 159,965 
Total$4,370,593 $2,024,702 

3. Revenue Recognition
We recognize revenue as, or when, we satisfy performance obligations under a contract. The majority of our contracts have performance obligations which are satisfied over time. In most cases, we view our performance obligations as promises to transfer a series of distinct services to our customers that are substantially the same and which have the same pattern of service. We recognize revenue over the performance period as a customer receives the benefits of our services.
Disaggregation of revenue
In addition to our segment reporting, we disaggregate our revenues by service, contract type, customer type, and geography. Our operating segments represent the manner in which our Chief Executive Officer reviews our financial results, which is further discussed in "Note 2. Segment Information."
By operating segment and service
Three Months Ended June 30,Nine Months Ended June 30,
(in thousands)2021202020212020
Program administration$325,755 $251,616 $964,981 $724,960 
Assessments and appeals33,529 40,875 101,561 104,621 
Workforce and children services64,240 32,531 167,106 90,651 
Other12,814 11,928 35,839 37,697 
Total U.S. Services$436,338 $336,950 $1,269,487 $957,929 
Program administration$451,594 $362,973 $1,005,706 $949,071 
Technology solutions89,559 42,101 187,006 130,172 
Assessments and appeals76,448 45,069 160,270 130,862 
Total U.S. Federal Services$617,601 $450,143 $1,352,982 $1,210,105 
Workforce and children services$94,310 $55,046 $269,743 $146,968 
Assessments and appeals58,664 42,468 169,753 167,397 
Program administration34,296 15,544 80,284 49,583 
Other2,311 1,186 6,105 5,719 
Total Outside the U.S.$189,581 $114,244 $525,885 $369,667 
Total revenue$1,243,520 $901,337 $3,148,354 $2,537,701 


By contract type
Three Months Ended June 30,Nine Months Ended June 30,
(in thousands)2021202020212020
Performance-based$389,800 $295,650 $1,033,509 $864,077 
Cost-plus282,808 422,641 953,373 1,184,425 
Fixed price146,175 132,535 413,296 352,255 
Time and materials424,737 50,511 748,176 136,944 
Total revenue$1,243,520 $901,337 $3,148,354 $2,537,701 

By customer type
Three Months Ended June 30,Nine Months Ended June 30,
(in thousands)2021202020212020
New York State government agencies$102,195 $79,140 $289,462 $276,585 
Other U.S. state government agencies329,792 265,608 976,336 692,689 
Total U.S. state government agencies431,987 344,748 1,265,798 969,274 
U.S. Federal Government agencies594,771 429,031 1,288,213 1,155,773 
International government agencies180,049 107,353 499,091 345,629 
Other, including local municipalities and commercial customers36,713 20,205 95,252 67,025 
Total revenue$1,243,520 $901,337 $3,148,354 $2,537,701 

By geography
Three Months Ended June 30,Nine Months Ended June 30,
(in thousands)2021202020212020
United States$1,053,940 $787,092 $2,622,469 $2,168,033 
United Kingdom74,109 53,364 211,777 190,088 
Australia65,283 38,415 192,161 100,390 
Rest of world50,188 22,466 121,947 79,190 
Total revenue$1,243,520 $901,337 $3,148,354 $2,537,701 

Contract balances
Differences in timing between revenue recognition and cash collection result in contract assets and contract liabilities. We classify these assets as accounts receivable — billed and billable and unbilled receivables; the liabilities are classified as deferred revenue.
In many contracts, we bill our customers on a monthly basis shortly after the month end for work performed in that month and such balances are considered collectible and are included within accounts receivable — billed and billable.
Exceptions to this pattern will arise for various reasons, including those listed below.
Under cost-plus contracts, we are typically required to estimate a contract’s share of our general and administrative expenses. This share is based upon estimates of total costs which may vary over time. We typically invoice our customers at an agreed provisional billing rate which may differ from actual rates incurred. If our actual rates are higher than the provisional billing rates, an asset is recorded for this variance; if the provisional billing rates are higher than our actual rates, we record a liability.
Certain contracts include retainage balances, whereby revenue is earned but some portion of cash payments are held back by the customer for a period of time, typically to allow the customer to confirm the objective criteria laid out by the contract have been met. This balance is classified as accounts receivable - unbilled until restrictions on billing are lifted.

In certain contracts, we may receive funds from our customers prior to performing operations. These funds are typically referred to as “set-up costs” and reflect the need for us to make investments in infrastructure prior to providing a service. This investment in infrastructure is not a performance obligation which is distinct from the service that is subsequently provided and, as a result, revenue is not recognized based upon the establishment of this infrastructure, but rather over the course of the contractual relationship. The funds are initially recorded as deferred revenue and recognized over the term of the contract. Other contracts may not include set-up fees but will provide higher fees in earlier periods of the contract. The premium on these fees is deferred.
Some of our contracts, notably our employment services contracts in the Outside the U.S. Segment, include payments for desired outcomes, such as job placement and job retention and these outcome payments occur over several months. We are required to estimate these outcome fees ahead of their realization and recognize this estimated fee over the period of delivery.
Of our revenue for the three and nine months ended June 30, 2021, approximately $7.5 million and $36.7 million, respectively, were from cash payments made to us prior to October 1, 2020. For the three and nine months ended June 30, 2020, we recognized revenue of $9.1 million and $49.2 million, respectively, from payments made prior to October 1, 2019.
Contract estimates
We are required to use estimates in recognizing revenue from some of our contracts. As discussed in "Note 1. Organization and Basis of Presentation," the calculation of these estimates has been complicated by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has reduced our ability to use past results to estimate future performance.
Some of our performance-based contract revenue is recognized based upon future outcomes defined in each contract. This is the case in many of our employment services contracts in the Outside the U.S. Segment, where we are paid as individuals attain employment goals, which may take many months to achieve. We recognize revenue on these contracts over the period of performance. Our estimates vary from contract to contract but may include estimates of the number of participants, the length of the contract, and the participants reaching employment milestones. We are required to estimate these outcome fees ahead of their realization and recognize this estimated fee over the period of delivery. In almost all of the jurisdictions in which we operate, the employment markets have experienced significant changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic. As the pandemic commenced, many employment opportunities were terminated. Our volume of new program participants is beginning to increase as governments shift their focus to addressing the residual impacts of the pandemic, such as the economy and unemployment, particularly in those countries where the pandemic has stabilized, and economies are beginning to reopen.
Other performance-based contracts with future outcomes include those where we recognize an average effective rate per participant based upon the total volume of expected participants. In this instance, we are required to estimate the amount of discount applied to determine the average rate of revenue per participant. Our revised estimates of participant numbers are based upon our updated evaluation of probable future volumes.
Where we make changes to our estimates, these are recognized on a cumulative catch-up basis. In the three and nine months ended June 30, 2021, we reported a benefit to revenue of $1.8 million and $17.8 million, respectively, and a benefit to diluted earnings per share of $0.03 and $0.20, respectively, from changes in estimates. The corresponding change in fiscal year 2020 was a decline of $1.4 million and $9.1 million for the three and nine months ended June 30, 2020, respectively.
Remaining performance obligations
At June 30, 2021, we had approximately $635 million of remaining performance obligations. We anticipate that we will recognize revenue on approximately 42% of this balance within the next 12 months. This balance excludes contracts with an original duration of twelve months or less, including contracts with a penalty-free termination for convenience clause, and any variable consideration which is allocated entirely to future performance obligations, including variable transaction fees or fees tied directly to costs incurred.